Neurosurgery: Types of Brain Surgery

Neurosurgery is a specialized field of medicine dedicated to diagnosing, treating, and preventing neurological conditions. It includes various sub disciplines and surgical techniques tailored to specific conditions, improving patient’s lives. This article explores neurosurgery’s primary categories, subspecialties, and procedures.

Subspecialties of Neurosurgery

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Peripheral Nerve Surgeries

Peripheral nerve surgeries are vital for diagnosing and treating nerve injuries, categorized into various degrees like neurapraxia, axonotmesis, and neurotmesis. Conditions addressed by peripheral nerve surgeries may include brachial plexus injuries and entrapment syndromes like carpal tunnel syndrome.

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Functional Neurosurgery

Functional neurosurgery concentrates on treating conditions where the central nervous system’s normal functioning is altered. This includes addressing chronic pain, spasticity, movement disorders like Parkinson’s disease, psychiatric conditions, and epilepsy. Recent advancements have also explored the use of functional neurosurgery in managing addiction.

Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)

Deep brain stimulation encompasses the surgical placement of a brain pacemaker that administers targeted electrical signals to specific regions of the brain. This innovative technique has shown its therapeutic efficacy in addressing challenging-to-treat conditions related to both movement and emotional disorders, such as chronic pain, Parkinson’s disease, tremors, and dystonia. Its capacity to induce controlled, reversible alterations in brain function establishes it as a valuable asset in the field of neurosurgery.

Epilepsy Surgery

Epilepsy surgery aims to control seizures and enhance a patient’s quality of life by either removing the seizure focus or interrupting the nerve pathways through which seizure impulses spread within the brain. Extensive evaluation and testing are crucial to determine the appropriateness of surgery, and it is only considered when the affected brain area is non-essential for critical functions like language, sensation, and movement.

Neurovascular Surgery:

The central focus of neurovascular surgery lies in the management of vascular irregularities, including conditions like aneurysms and constricted blood vessels within the brain, spine, and peripheral nerves. Practitioners in this specialized area of medicine are dedicated to restoring proper blood circulation and averting potential, life-threatening complications.

Pediatric Neurosurgery:

Pediatric neurosurgery is a specialized field dedicated to the treatment of young patients afflicted with a range of neurological disorders, such as hydrocephalus, pediatric brain tumors, spinal cord abnormalities, and craniosynostosis (early fusion of a child’s skull bones). This subspecialty requires a deep understanding of pediatric neurology and development.

Spine Surgery:

Spine surgery encompasses the treatment of conditions affecting the spinal canal, such as spinal cord tumors, syringomyelia (fluid-filled cysts), and Chiari malformation (an abnormality allowing brain tissue to extend into the spinal canal). On average, cervical spine surgery in India costs around 3000 – 5000 USD.

Neurosurgery Techniques

1. Skull Base Surgery: Skull base surgery is a conventional neurosurgical approach used to address conditions like aneurysms, brain or spinal cord tumors, cranial bleeding, vascular malformations, and complex spinal disorders. It typically involves temporarily opening the skull to access the affected area.

2. Laser Ablation: Laser ablation serves as a minimally invasive alternative for treating specific neurological conditions, including brain tumors, epilepsy, and Parkinson’s disease. This technique offers benefits such as avoiding a craniotomy, precision in targeting affected tissue, minimal radiation exposure, reduced pain, fewer complications, less scarring, shorter hospitalization, and faster recovery.

3. Endoscopic/Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery: Minimally invasive neurosurgery techniques aim to minimize incisions and associated risks. Some advanced procedures even allow patients to remain awake during surgery, particularly valuable for critical brain areas where preserving function is essential.

To summarize, neurosurgery encompasses a wide array of subfields and methodologies, each customized to target particular neurological disorders. Constant advancements in minimally invasive methods and groundbreaking surgical approaches persistently enhance patient results, thereby positively impacting the health and recovery of numerous patients globally. Ortil Healthcare collaborates with expert clinics and hospitals to help people get the best neuro surgery treatment in India through tailored medical services. For more information, please visit